Countries of the World:
Resources about Iraq including maps, facts about the land, people, history,
government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Iraq
Nominal GDP (2009 est.): $65.8 billion.
Nominal GDP per capita (2009 est., PPP): $2,108.
GDP real growth rate (2009 est.): 4.0%.
Rate of inflation (2009 est.): -4.4%.
Unemployment rate (2008 official): 12% to 18%.
Budget (FY 2010): Revenues--$52.8 billion; expenditures--
Public debt (Dec. 2008 est.): $46 billion to $87 billion.
Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur.
Agriculture: Products--wheat, barley, rice, corn, chickpeas,
beans, dates, cotton, sunflowers, cattle, sheep, and
Industry: Types--petroleum, chemicals, textiles,
construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal
Trade: Exports (2009 est.)--$39.3 billion; export
commodities--crude oil, crude materials excluding fuels,
food and live animals. Export partners (2009)--U.S. 27.6%,
India 14.5%, Italy 10.1%, South Korea 8.6%, Taiwan 5.6%,
China 4.2%, Netherlands 4.1%, Japan 4.0%. Imports (2009
est.)--$41.3 billion; import commodities--food, medicine,
manufactured goods. Import partners (2009): Turkey 25.0%,
Syria 17.4%, U.S. 8.7%, China 6.8%, Jordan 4.2%, Italy 4.0%,
Geography of Iraq
Area: 437,072 sq. km.; about the size of California.
Cities: Capital--Baghdad (5.7 million, 2004 estimate). Other
cities--Basrah, Mosul, Kirkuk, Sulaymaniyah, Erbil.
Terrain: Alluvial plains, mountains, and desert.
Climate: Mostly hot and dry.
Government of Iraq
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: October 15, 2005.
Independence: On October 3, 1932, Iraq gained independence
from British administration under a League of Nations
Mandate. Several coups after 1958 resulted in dictatorship,
with the Ba’ath Party seizing power in 1963 and again in
1968. From July 1979 to March 2003, Iraq was ruled by Saddam
Hussein and the Ba’ath Party. Following the overthrow of the
regime by a U.S.-led coalition in March-April 2003, the
Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) assumed administrative
and security responsibility for Iraq while Iraqi political
leaders and the Iraqi people established a transitional
government. On June 28, 2004, the CPA transferred
sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government. A new 4-year,
constitutionally based government took office in March 2006,
and a new cabinet was installed in May 2006. On June 31,
2009, U.S. troops withdrew from urban areas, a step that
reinforced Iraqi sovereignty. On March 7, 2010, Iraq held a
second round of national elections to choose the members of
the Council of Representatives and, in turn, the executive
branch of government.
Branches: Executive--Presidency Council (one president and
two vice presidents; this configuration may change following
the March 2010 national elections and the formation of a new
government; Council of Ministers (one prime minister, two
deputy prime ministers, and 37 cabinet ministers). Judicial-
-Supreme Court appointed by the prime minister and confirmed
by the Council of Representatives. Legislative--Council of
Representatives (COR) consisting of 325 members.
Divisions: 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah)--Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah,
An Najaf, Erbil, As Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk, Babil, Baghdad,
Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad
Din, Wasit. One region--the Kurdistan Regional Government.
Map of Iraq
This Map of Iraq shows the borders of the country, as well as
rivers, and cities including Baghdad the capital of Iraq.
(Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Iraq
The Official Name of Iraq is the Republic of Iraq. (Facts from
the U.S. State Department)
People of Iraq
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Iraqi(s).
Population (July 2009 est.): 28,945,657.
Population growth rate (2009 est.): 2.507%.
Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurd 15%-20%, Turcoman, Chaldean,
Assyrian, or others approximately 5%.
Religions: Muslim 97%, Christian and others approximately 3%.
Languages: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turcoman (a
Turkish dialect), Assyrian, Armenian.
Education: Years compulsory--primary school (age 6 through
grade 6). Literacy (2006 UNESCO est.)--74.1%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--43.82 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy--69.94 yrs. (2009 est.).
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