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Countries of the World: Iraq
Resources about Iraq including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Iraq Nominal GDP (2009 est.): $65.8 billion. Nominal GDP per capita (2009 est., PPP): $2,108. GDP real growth rate (2009 est.): 4.0%. Rate of inflation (2009 est.): -4.4%. Unemployment rate (2008 official): 12% to 18%. Budget (FY 2010): Revenues--$52.8 billion; expenditures-- $72.4 billion. Public debt (Dec. 2008 est.): $46 billion to $87 billion. Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur. Agriculture: Products--wheat, barley, rice, corn, chickpeas, beans, dates, cotton, sunflowers, cattle, sheep, and chickens. Industry: Types--petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing. Trade: Exports (2009 est.)--$39.3 billion; export commodities--crude oil, crude materials excluding fuels, food and live animals. Export partners (2009)--U.S. 27.6%, India 14.5%, Italy 10.1%, South Korea 8.6%, Taiwan 5.6%, China 4.2%, Netherlands 4.1%, Japan 4.0%. Imports (2009 est.)--$41.3 billion; import commodities--food, medicine, manufactured goods. Import partners (2009): Turkey 25.0%, Syria 17.4%, U.S. 8.7%, China 6.8%, Jordan 4.2%, Italy 4.0%, Germany 4.0%.

Geography of Iraq Area: 437,072 sq. km.; about the size of California. Cities: Capital--Baghdad (5.7 million, 2004 estimate). Other cities--Basrah, Mosul, Kirkuk, Sulaymaniyah, Erbil. Terrain: Alluvial plains, mountains, and desert. Climate: Mostly hot and dry.

Government of Iraq Type: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: October 15, 2005. Independence: On October 3, 1932, Iraq gained independence from British administration under a League of Nations Mandate. Several coups after 1958 resulted in dictatorship, with the Ba’ath Party seizing power in 1963 and again in 1968. From July 1979 to March 2003, Iraq was ruled by Saddam Hussein and the Ba’ath Party. Following the overthrow of the regime by a U.S.-led coalition in March-April 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) assumed administrative and security responsibility for Iraq while Iraqi political leaders and the Iraqi people established a transitional government. On June 28, 2004, the CPA transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government. A new 4-year, constitutionally based government took office in March 2006, and a new cabinet was installed in May 2006. On June 31, 2009, U.S. troops withdrew from urban areas, a step that reinforced Iraqi sovereignty. On March 7, 2010, Iraq held a second round of national elections to choose the members of the Council of Representatives and, in turn, the executive branch of government. Branches: Executive--Presidency Council (one president and two vice presidents; this configuration may change following the March 2010 national elections and the formation of a new government; Council of Ministers (one prime minister, two deputy prime ministers, and 37 cabinet ministers). Judicial- -Supreme Court appointed by the prime minister and confirmed by the Council of Representatives. Legislative--Council of Representatives (COR) consisting of 325 members. Divisions: 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah)--Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Erbil, As Sulaymaniyah, Kirkuk, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit. One region--the Kurdistan Regional Government.

Map of Iraq This Map of Iraq shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Baghdad the capital of Iraq. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Iraq The Official Name of Iraq is the Republic of Iraq. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Iraq Nationality: Noun and adjective--Iraqi(s). Population (July 2009 est.): 28,945,657. Population growth rate (2009 est.): 2.507%. Ethnic groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurd 15%-20%, Turcoman, Chaldean, Assyrian, or others approximately 5%. Religions: Muslim 97%, Christian and others approximately 3%. Languages: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turcoman (a Turkish dialect), Assyrian, Armenian. Education: Years compulsory--primary school (age 6 through grade 6). Literacy (2006 UNESCO est.)--74.1%. Health: Infant mortality rate--43.82 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--69.94 yrs. (2009 est.).

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