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Countries of the World: Mongolia
Resources about Mongolia including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Mongolia GDP (2009 est.): 6.1 trillion Mongolian Tugruks/MNT (U.S. $4.2 billion at current exchange rates). GDP growth (2009): -1.6%. Per capita GDP (2009): approx. $1,551. Natural resources: Coal (thermal and metallurgical), copper, molybdenum, silver, iron, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, uranium, and petroleum. Agriculture (21.2% of 2009 GDP, livelihood for about 40% of population): Products--livestock and byproducts, hay fodder, vegetables. Industry (30.5% of 2009 GDP, includes mining 22%, manufacturing 5.9%, and utilities (electricity, gas, and water) 2.6%: Types--minerals (primarily copper and gold), animal-derived products, building materials, food/beverage. Trade: Total turnover of foreign trade for 2009 was $4.02 billion. Exports--$1.88 billion (U.S. dollar (USD) figures based on current USD/MNT exchange rate): minerals, livestock, animal products, and textiles. Markets--Asian countries (approx. 75.5%), European countries (approx. 15.81%), and countries of American continent (approx. 8.5%). Imports--$2.13 billion: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building equipment, vehicles, textiles. Suppliers--91 countries account for 93.2% of total imports, of which European countries (50.5%) and Asian countries (42.7%). Aid received: From 1990-2008, official development assistance to Mongolia from bilateral and multilateral donors totaled over $3.698 billion. Received $185.94 million in official development assistance in 2008. Fiscal year: Calendar year.

Geography of Mongolia Area: 1,566,500 sq. km. (604,103 sq. mi.); slightly larger than Alaska (land boundaries 8,114 km.). Terrain: Almost 90% of land area is pasture or desert, of varying usefulness; 1% arable; 9% forested. Climate: Continental, with little precipitation and sharp seasonal fluctuations.

Government of Mongolia Type: Mixed parliamentary/presidential. Independence: gained in 1921; in 1990, democratic reform begun and shift from dependence on the former Soviet Union declared. Constitutions: 1960 and February 12, 1992. Branches: Executive--power is divided between a president (elected by a popular election in May 2009) and prime minister (current cabinet nominated by the prime minister was approved in November 2009 following the appointment of a new prime minister; most cabinet members remained in place from the September 2008 government of the previous prime minister, who stepped aside due to health problems). Legislative--State Great Hural (parliament; 76 members elected in June 2008). Judicial--Constitutional Court is empowered to supervise the implementation of the constitution, makes judgment on the violation of its provisions, and solves disputes. Legal code based on Continental and Russian law. Legal education at Mongolian State University and private universities. Mongolia accepts International Court of Justice jurisdiction. Political parties: 18 registered political parties. Suffrage: Universal at 18. Administrative subdivisions: 21 aimags (provinces) and one city (Ulaanbaatar).

Map of Mongolia This Map of Mongolia shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Ulaanbaatar the capital of Mongolia. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Mongolia The Official Name of Mongolia is Mongolia. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Mongolia Nationality: Noun and adjective--Mongolian(s). Population (2009): 2.735 million. Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.4%. Health: Infant mortality rate (under one year)--19.4/1,000 (2008); 20/1,000 (2009). Life expectancy--67 yrs. (2008); 67.9 yrs. (2009). Ethnic groups (2004): About 95% Mongol (predominantly Khalkha); 5% Turkic (largest group, Kazakh); Buriat. Language: Mongolian. Religions (2004): Buddhist Lamaism 50%, Muslim 4% (primarily in the southwest), shamanist and Christian 6%, and none 40%. Education: Years compulsory--9 (provided free by the government). Literacy--98%.

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