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Countries of the World: Nicaragua
Resources about Nicaragua including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Nicaragua GDP (2009): $6.2 billion. GDP real growth rate (2009): -1.5%. Per capita GDP (2009): $1,071. Components of GDP (2009): Manufacturing--17.7% of GDP; agriculture, cattle, forestry and fishing--16.8% of GDP; retail, hotels, and restaurants--14.2% of GDP; government-- 12.6% of GDP; real estate--7.5% of GDP; personal services-- 6.6% of GDP; telecommunications and transportation--5.5% of GDP; financial services--5.1% of GDP; construction--4.7% of GDP; utilities--2.6% of GDP; mining--1.1% of GDP. Inflation rate (2009): 0.93%. Natural resources: arable land, fresh water, fisheries, gold, timber, hydro and geothermal power potential. Trade (2009): National exports--$2.363 billion (f.o.b.): coffee, shrimp and lobster, beef, sugar, industrial goods, gold, bananas. Free trade zone exports--$972.2 million: mostly textiles and apparel, automobile wiring harnesses, cigars. Markets--United States, Central American Common Market, European Union (EU), Mexico, Japan. Imports--$3.47 billion (2009), primarily consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, and petroleum products. Free trade zone imports--$830.6 million. Suppliers--United States, Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Guatemala, El Salvador.

Geography of Nicaragua Area: 129,494 sq. km. (59,998 sq. mi.); slightly larger than New York State. Cities: Capital--Managua (pop. 1.6 million). Other major cities--Bluefields, Chinandega, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Masaya, Matagalpa, and Rivas. Terrain: Extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes. Climate: Tropical in lowlands; cooler in highlands.

Government of Nicaragua Type: Republic. Independence: 1821. Constitution: The 1987 Sandinista-era constitution was amended in 1995 to provide for a more even distribution of power among the four branches of government and again in 2000 to increase the size of the Supreme Court and the Controller General's Office and to make changes to the electoral laws. The changes in 2000 allowed for the president to be elected with 35% of the popular vote so long as there was at least a five percentage point difference between the first and second place candidates in order to avoid a second round of voting. Branches: Executive--president and vice president. Legislative--National Assembly (unicameral). Judicial-- Supreme Court and subordinate appeals, district, and local courts, as well as separate labor and administrative tribunals. Electoral--Supreme Electoral Council, responsible for organizing and holding elections. Administrative subdivisions: 15 departments and two autonomous regions on the Atlantic coast; 153 municipalities. National political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or PC (Azalia Aviles-Salmeron); Independent Liberal Party or PLI (Indalecio Rodriguez); Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC (Jorge Castillo-Quant); Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN (Alejandro Mejia-Ferreti); Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN (Daniel Ortega-Saavedra); Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS (Enrique Saenz- Navarrete). Suffrage: Universal at 16.

Map of Nicaragua This Map of Nicaragua shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Managua the capital of Nicaragua. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Nicaragua The Official Name of Nicaragua is the Republic of Nicaragua. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Nicaragua Nationality: Noun and adjective--Nicaraguan(s). Population (July 2010 est.): 5,955,928; density--42 per sq. km. Annual growth rate (2009 est.): 1.784%. Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, and Amerindian 5%. Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic, with rapidly growing Protestant congregations. Languages: Spanish (official), English and indigenous languages on Caribbean coast. Education: Years compulsory--none enforced (28% of first graders eventually finish sixth grade). Literacy--81%. Health: Life expectancy--71.5 yrs. Infant mortality rate (2009 est.)--25 deaths/1,000 live births. Work force (2010 est.): 2.3 million.

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