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Countries of the World: Peru
Resources about Peru including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Peru GDP (2009): $127.22 billion. Annual growth rate: 9.8% (2008); 0.9% (2009). Per capita GDP (2009): $4,365. Natural resources: Copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, iron ore, fish, petroleum, natural gas, and forestry. Manufacturing (2009): 14.33% of GDP. Types--food and beverages, textiles and apparel, nonferrous and precious metals, nonmetallic minerals, petroleum refining, paper, chemicals, iron and steel, fishmeal. Agriculture (2009): 7.8% of GDP. Products--coffee, cotton, asparagus, paprika, artichokes, sugarcane, potatoes, rice, banana, maize, poultry, milk, others. Other sectors, by percentage of GDP (2009): Services (54%), mining (5.7%), construction (6.2%), fisheries (0.44%). Trade (2009 Government of Peru customs statistics): Exports- -$26.66 billion: gold, copper, fishmeal, petroleum, zinc, textiles, apparel, asparagus, coffee, others. Major markets- -U.S. (17%), China (15.3%), Switzerland (14.9%), Canada (8.7%), Japan (5.1%), Germany (3.9%), South Korea (2.8%), Chile (2.8%). Imports--$20.4 billion: petroleum and petroleum products, vehicles, plastics, steel, telephones, wheat, soy oil and soy products, commercial machinery, processed food. Major suppliers--U.S. (19.7%), China (15%), Brazil (7.7%), Ecuador (4.9%), Chile (4.6%), Colombia (4.4%), Japan (4.1%).

Geography of Peru Area: 1.28 million sq. km. (496,225 sq. mi.). Peru is the third-largest country in South America and is approximately three times the size of California. Major cities: Lima (capital), Arequipa, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huancayo, Ica, Trujillo, Ayacucho, Piura, Iquitos, and Chimbote. Terrain: Western arid coastal plains, central rugged Andean mountains, and eastern lowlands with tropical forests that are part of the Amazon basin. Climate: Arid and mild in coastal area, temperate to frigid in the Andes, and warm and humid in the jungle lowlands.

Government of Peru Type: Constitutional republic. Independence: July 28, 1821. Constitution: December 31, 1993. Branches: Executive--president, two vice presidents, and a Council of Ministers led by a president of the Council of Ministers (prime minister). Legislative--unicameral Congress. Judicial--four-tier court structure consisting of Supreme Court and lower courts. Administrative divisions: 25 regions (sometimes called departments) subdivided into 195 provinces and 1,834 districts. Political parties: Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), Popular Christian Party PPC), Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP), Peru Posible (PP), Popular Action (AP), National Solidarity (SN), Union for Peru (UPP), Somos Peru (SP), National Restoration (RN), and Force 2011. Suffrage: Universal and mandatory for citizens 18 to 70.

Map of Peru This Map of Peru shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Lima the capital of Peru. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Peru The Official Name of Peru is the Republic of Peru. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Peru Nationality: Peruvian. Ethnic groups: Indigenous (45%); mixed background ("mestizo") (37%); European (15%); African, Japanese, Chinese, and other (3%). Population (2009): 29.11 million. Approximately 30% of the population lives in the Lima/Callao metropolitan area. Annual population growth rate (2009): 1.11%. Religions: Roman Catholic (81%), other (10%). Languages: Spanish is the principal language. Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages also have official status. Education: Years compulsory--11. Attendance--ages 6-11, 92%; ages 12-16, 66%. Literacy--96% in urban areas, 80% in rural areas. Health: Infant mortality rate (2006)--29.96 per 1,000. Life expectancy (2007)--68.33 years male; 72.04 years female. Unemployment in Lima (2009): 8.4%; underemployment (2009): 44.66%.

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