Countries of the World:
Resources about Sweden including maps, facts about the land, people,
history, government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Sweden
GDP (2010 est., nominal): $438.8 billion.
GDP (2010 est., per capita purchasing power parity):
GNI (2009, per capita purchasing power parity): $38,560.
Annual GDP growth rate (2010 est.): 4.5%.
Exchange rate (September 2010): Swedish kronor (SEK) per
U.S. dollar = 7.073.
Exchange rate (January-September 2010 avg.): Swedish kronor
(SEK) per U.S. dollar = 7.3475.
Inflation rate (2010 est.): 1.4%.
Natural resources: Forests, hydroelectric power, iron ore,
copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium,
arsenic, feldspar, timber.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing (2009): Approximately
1.5% of GDP. Products--dairy products, meat, grains (barley,
wheat), sugar beets, potatoes, wood. Arable land--9 million
Industry (2010): Approximately 26.6% of GDP. Types--
machinery/metal products (iron and steel), electrical
equipment, aircraft, paper products, precision equipment
(bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp
and paper products, processed foods.
Services (2010): Approximately 71.8% of GDP. Types--
telecommunications, computer equipment, biotech.
Trade: Exports (2010)--SEK 728.2 billion (U.S. $102.9
billion). Types--machinery and transport equipment, 44.1%;
chemical and rubber products, 13.4%; food, clothing,
textiles, and furniture, 12%; wood and paper products,
11.7%; minerals, 10.7%; mineral fuels and electric current,
8.1%. Major trading partners, exports (2010)--Germany 10.1%,
Norway 9.9%, U.K. 7.6%, U.S. 7.3%, Denmark 6.5%, Finland
6.2%, France 5.1%, Netherlands 4.7%, Belgium 3.9%, China
3.1%. Imports (2010)--SEK 687.6 billion (U.S. $97.2
billion). Types--machinery and transport equipment, 41.8%;
food, clothing, textiles and furniture, 19.6%; mineral fuels
and electric current, 13.5%; chemicals and rubber products,
12.8%; minerals, 9.2%; wood and paper products, 3.1%. Major
trading partners, imports (2010)--Germany 18.3%, Norway
8.7%, Denmark 8.5%, Netherlands 6.4%, U.K. 5.7%, Finland
5.2%, Russia 4.9%, France 4.8%, Belgium 3.9%, China 3.9%.
Geography of Sweden
Area: 449,964 sq. km. (173,731 sq. mi.)--slightly larger
Cities: Capital--Stockholm (city population: 809,072). Other
cities--Goteborg (city population: 499,747), Malmo (city
Terrain: Generally flat or rolling. Three of the principal
rivers, the Ume, the Torne and the Angerman, flow into the
Gulf of Bothnia. The highest areas are found in the Kjolen
mountain range along the border with Norway, where peaks
rise to over 1,500 m; the highest point is at the northern
tip of this range, at Kebnekaise, which reaches 2,111 m
(6,926 ft.). South of the mountains is the lakeland area,
where the Vanern, the largest lake in Western Europe--over
twice the size of Luxembourg--is situated. South of the
lakes is the infertile Smaland plateau, surrounded by the
lowland plains that border the sea. The mountainous regions
and some northern parts of Sweden are covered in snow for
much of the year, and only 8% of the country is given over
Climate: Temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and
cool, partly cloudy summers; sub-arctic in the north. The
north of Sweden lies within the Arctic Circle, and
continental influences also contribute to the cold climate.
In northern areas, winters are usually long and cold. The
south of Sweden benefits from maritime influences and the
climate is milder. In the capital city of Stockholm, which
lies on the south-east coast, daily average temperatures
only fall to −3.1°C (27°F) in February, the coldest month,
and are 17.8°C (64°F) in July. The mean annual rainfall in
Stockholm is 22 in., with the largest amount of rain falling
between July and September.
Government of Sweden
Type: Constitutional monarchy.
Constitution: The Swedish Constitution is based on four
fundamental laws: the Instrument of Government (originally
dating from June 6, 1809), the Act of Succession (1810), the
Freedom of the Press Act (1949), and the Riksdag Act.
Following partial reforms in 1968 and 1969, a new Instrument
of Government and a new Riksdag Act were adopted in 1973 and
1974, and the revised Constitution came into force on
January 1, 1975, replacing the Acts of 1809, 1866 and 1949.
Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state); prime minister
(head of government); Cabinet, responsible to Parliament.
Legislative--unicameral Parliament (Riksdag--349 members).
Judicial--84 district courts, 10 appeal courts and two
Subdivisions: 21 counties, 18 county councils, 290
municipalities, and two regions.
Political parties represented in Parliament: the Moderate
Party (conservative), the Liberal Party, the Center Party,
the Christian Democratic Party, the Social Democratic Party,
the Left Party, the Green Party, and the party of the Sweden
Suffrage: Universal, 18 years of age. After 3 years of legal
residence, immigrants may vote in county council and
municipal elections, but not in national elections.
Map of Sweden
This Map of Sweden shows the borders of the country, as well
as rivers, and cities including Stockholm the capital of
Sweden. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)
Official Name of Sweden
The Official Name of Sweden is the Kingdom of Sweden. (Facts
from the U.S. State Department)
People of Sweden
Nationality: Noun--Swedes; adjective--Swedish.
Population (June 30, 2010): 9,373,379.
Annual population growth rate (2010): 0.83%.
Ethnic groups: Indigenous Swedes, ethnic Finns, and ethnic
Immigrants (2010 est.): 14.1% of all people living in Sweden
are born abroad. In 2009 102,280 people immigrated to
Sweden. The immigrant groups are Finns, Iraqis, ex-
Yugoslavia nationals, Somalis, Iranians, Norwegians, Danes,
Turks, and Poles.
Religions: Lutheran (official Church of Sweden) (75%), other
Protestant groups (5%), Muslim (5%), Roman Catholic,
Pentecostal, Orthodox, Baptist, Jewish, Buddhist.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--99%.
Health: Infant mortality rate (2010 est.)--2.75/1,000. Life
expectancy (2010 est.)--men 78.59 years, women 83.26 years.
Work force (2009 est.): 4.93 million. Agriculture--1.1%;
industry--28.2%; services--70.7%. Unemployment (September
Public holidays (2010): January 1 (New Year's Day); January
6 (Epiphany); April 2 (Good Friday); April 4 (Easter
Sunday); April 5 (Easter Monday); May 1 (Labor Day); May 13
(Ascension Day); May 23 (Pentecost); June 6 (National Day);
June 25 (Midsummer’s Eve); November 1 (All Saints' Day);
December 25 (Christmas); December 26 (Boxing Day). The eve
of a holiday is as important--or more so--than the holiday
itself. Most Swedes have the day off, including those
working in the civil service, banks, public transport,
hospitals, shops, and the media. Others have at least a
half-day. This applies especially to Midsummer's Eve, All
Saints' Day Eve, and Christmas Eve. The eve of May Day is
called Valborg Eve or St Walpurgis. When a holiday falls on
a Thursday many Swedes have the following Friday off in
addition. When a holiday falls on a Saturday or Sunday it is
not taken on the following Monday.
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