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Countries of the World: Ecuador
Resources about Ecuador including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Ecuador GDP: (2008 preliminary) $54.6 billion; (2007 provisional) $45.8 billion; (2006) $41.8 billion. Real annual growth rate: (2009 preliminary) 0.36%; (2008 preliminary) 7.24%; (2007) 2.04%; (2006) 4.75%. Per capita GDP: (2008) $3,961; (2007) $3,366; (2006) $3,115. Natural resources: Petroleum, fish, shrimp, timber, gold, copper. GDP by activity (2008): Oil and mining 26.8% (includes oil and natural gas extraction, and mining); commercial trade (wholesale and retail) 11.7%; construction 9.8%; industry 9.2% (types--food processing, wood products, textiles, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals). Other major contributors to GDP (2008): Agriculture, including seafood 6.3% (products--bananas, seafood, flowers, coffee, cacao, sugar, tropical fruits, palm oil, palm hearts, rice, corn, and livestock); transportation/warehousing 6.0%. Trade: Exports--$13.8 billion (2009); $18.5 billion (2008). Types--petroleum, bananas, shrimp, cacao, coffee, cut flowers, wood, canned fish. Major markets (2009)--U.S. 33%, Latin America excluding Andean Community 24%, Andean Community 16%, European Union (EU) 15%, and Asia 2%. Imports--$14.1 billion (2009); $17.6 billion (2008). Types-- industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods, industrial capital goods. Major suppliers (2009)--Latin America excluding Andean Community 37%, U.S. 25%, Andean Community 22%, Asia 19%, and EU 10%. Currency: U.S. dollar.

Geography of Ecuador Area: 276,840 sq. km; about the size of Colorado. Cities: Capital--Quito (pop. 2 million). Other major cities-- Guayaquil (2.28 million). Terrain: Jungle east of the Andes, a rich agricultural coastal plain west of the Andes, high-elevation valleys through the mountainous center of the country and an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean. Climate: Varied, mild year-round in the mountain valleys; hot and humid in coastal and Amazonian jungle lowlands.

Government of Ecuador Type: Republic. Independence: May 24, 1822 (from Spain). Constitution: October 20, 2008. Branches: Executive--President and cabinet. Legislative-- unicameral National Assembly. Judicial--National Court of Justice, Constitutional Court, Provincial Courts, ordinary civil and criminal judges, Prosecutor General's office. Electoral--National Electoral Council, Electoral Disputes Tribunal. Transparency and citizen participation--Citizen Participation Council, oversight authorities. Administrative subdivisions: 24 provinces. Major political parties: Over a dozen political parties and movements; President Correa's Proud and Sovereign Fatherland (PAIS) Alliance is predominant. Suffrage: Obligatory for citizens 18-65 yrs. of age; optional for other eligible voters.

Map of Ecuador This Map of Ecuador shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Quito the capital of Ecuador. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Ecuador The Official Name of Ecuador is the Republic of Ecuador. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Ecuador Nationality: Noun and adjective--Ecuadorian(s). Population (January 2009): 14,573,101. Annual population growth rate (2009 est.): 1.497%. Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 65%, indigenous 25%, Caucasian and others 7%, African 3%. Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic (95%), but religious freedom recognized. Languages: Spanish (official), indigenous languages, especially Quichua, the Ecuadorian dialect of Quechua. Quichua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural communication. Education: Years compulsory--ages 5-18. Attendance (through 6th grade)--77% urban, 78% rural. Literacy—97.3%. Health: Infant mortality rate--22.1/1,000. Life expectancy-- 76.62 yrs.

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