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Countries of the World: Estonia
Resources about Estonia including maps, facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, and economy.

Economy of Estonia GDP (2009): $18.9 billion. Real GDP growth rate (2009): -14.1%. Per capita GDP (2009): $14,076. Inflation (2009): -0.1%. Unemployment rate (second quarter 2010): 18.6%. Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorus, limestone, blue clay. Agriculture (2.6% of 2008 GDP): Products--livestock production (milk, meat, eggs) and crop production (cereals and legumes, potatoes, forage crops). Arable land--433,100 hectares. Industry (17.9% of 2008 GDP): Types--engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, and textiles. Services (60.9% of 2008 GDP): Transit, information technology (IT), telecommunications, business services, retail, construction, real estate. Public sector (18.6% of 2008 GDP): Public services, education, healthcare, social services. Trade: Exports (2009)--$8.9 billion. Partners--Finland 18%, Sweden 12.5%, Latvia 9.7%, Russia 9.3%, Germany 6%, Lithuania 4.9%, U.S. 4.2%. Imports (2009)--$10 billion. Partners--Finland 14.5%, Germany 10.4%, Sweden 8.4%, Lithuania 10.9%, Latvia 10.2%, Russia 8.8%. Exchange rate (2010): 11.4 kroon (EEK)=U.S.$1. Foreign direct investment (December 2009): Sweden 39.7%, Finland 22.9%, Netherlands 8.7%, Norway 3.2%, Russia 3.1%, U.K. 2.4%, Cyprus 2.3%, Denmark 2.0%, Germany 1.2%, Luxembourg 1.7%, France 1.5%, U.S. 1.3%.

Geography of Estonia Area: 45,226 sq. km. (17,462 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined. Cities: Capital--Tallinn (2008 pop. 397,617), situated in the north of the country, on the Gulf of Finland. Other cities-- university town of Tartu (102,414); the primarily Russian- speaking industrial towns of Narva (66,435) and Kohtla-Jarve (45,093) in the north-east of Estonia; Parnu on the western coast (44,016); and Viljandi in the rural south (20,117). The last population census was held in 2000. Terrain: Mostly flat, with some undulating terrain in the east and southeast, average elevation 50 m. Steep limestone banks and 1,520 islands mark the coastline. Land use--12.05% arable land, 47.4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 18.55% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted. Climate: Temperate, with four seasons. Annual precipitation averages 50-75 cm.

Government of Estonia Type: Parliamentary democracy. Constitution: On June 28, 1992 Estonia ratified its constitution based on its 1938 model, offering legal continuity to the Republic of Estonia prior to Soviet occupation. Branches: Executive--president (head of state), elected indirectly every 5 years; prime minister (head of government). Legislative--Riigikogu (Parliament--101 members, 4-year term). Judicial--Supreme Court. Administrative regions: 15 counties, 33 towns, and 194 municipalities (local elections data, 2005). Political parties: Six parties are presently represented in the parliament: the Estonian Center Party; Estonian Reform Party; Pro Patria-Res Publica Union; Estonian People's Union; Estonian Social Democratic Party; and the Estonian Greens. Other parties include: the Russian Party of Estonia; Estonian Independence Party; Estonian Christian Democratic Party; Estonian United Left Party. Suffrage: Universal at 18 years of age; noncitizen residents may vote in municipal elections. Government budget: $9.3 billion. Defense: 1.8% of GDP. National holidays: Jan. 1 (New Year's Day), Feb. 24 (Independence Day), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, May 1 (May Day), Whitsunday, June 23 (Victory Day--anniversary of Battle of Vonnu in 1919), June 24 (Midsummer Day), Aug. 20 (Day of Restoration of Independence), Dec. 24 (Christmas Eve); Dec. 25 (Christmas Day), Dec. 26 (Boxing Day). Government of Estonia web site:

Map of Estonia This Map of Estonia shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and cities including Tallinn the capital of Estonia. (Maps from the U.S. State Department)

Official Name of Estonia The Official Name of Estonia is the Republic of Estonia. (Facts from the U.S. State Department)

People of Estonia Nationality: Noun and adjective--Estonian(s). Population (2008): 1.340 million. Annual population growth rate (2008): -0.48%. Birth rate (2008)--11.96/1,000. Death rate (2008)--12.44/1,000. Net migration (2008)--3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population. Density-- 31/sq. km. Urban dwellers--70%. Ethnic groups: Estonians 68.6%, Russians 24.9%, Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.2%, Finns 0.8%, other 2.4%. Religions: Evangelical Lutheran; the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox, subordinated to Constantinople; the Estonian Orthodox, subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate; Roman Catholic; Baptist; and other. Languages (2000 census): Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7%. Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--218,600 students at 550 schools, plus 50,800 university students. Literacy-- 99.8%. Health: Infant mortality rate (2008)--5 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy (2008)--68.59 yrs. men, 79.23 yrs. women. Work force (2008): 695,000.

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