Countries of the World:
Resources about Estonia including maps, facts about the land, people,
history, government, political conditions, and economy.
Economy of Estonia
GDP (2009): $18.9 billion.
Real GDP growth rate (2009): -14.1%.
Per capita GDP (2009): $14,076.
Inflation (2009): -0.1%.
Unemployment rate (second quarter 2010): 18.6%.
Natural resources: Oil shale, phosphorus, limestone, blue
Agriculture (2.6% of 2008 GDP): Products--livestock
production (milk, meat, eggs) and crop production (cereals
and legumes, potatoes, forage crops). Arable land--433,100
Industry (17.9% of 2008 GDP): Types--engineering,
electronics, wood and wood products, and textiles.
Services (60.9% of 2008 GDP): Transit, information
technology (IT), telecommunications, business services,
retail, construction, real estate.
Public sector (18.6% of 2008 GDP): Public services,
education, healthcare, social services.
Trade: Exports (2009)--$8.9 billion. Partners--Finland 18%,
Sweden 12.5%, Latvia 9.7%, Russia 9.3%, Germany 6%,
Lithuania 4.9%, U.S. 4.2%. Imports (2009)--$10 billion.
Partners--Finland 14.5%, Germany 10.4%, Sweden 8.4%,
Lithuania 10.9%, Latvia 10.2%, Russia 8.8%.
Exchange rate (2010): 11.4 kroon (EEK)=U.S.$1.
Foreign direct investment (December 2009): Sweden 39.7%,
Finland 22.9%, Netherlands 8.7%, Norway 3.2%, Russia 3.1%,
U.K. 2.4%, Cyprus 2.3%, Denmark 2.0%, Germany 1.2%,
Luxembourg 1.7%, France 1.5%, U.S. 1.3%.
Geography of Estonia
Area: 45,226 sq. km. (17,462 sq. mi.); slightly smaller than
New Hampshire and Vermont combined.
Cities: Capital--Tallinn (2008 pop. 397,617), situated in the
north of the country, on the Gulf of Finland. Other cities--
university town of Tartu (102,414); the primarily Russian-
speaking industrial towns of Narva (66,435) and Kohtla-Jarve
(45,093) in the north-east of Estonia; Parnu on the western
coast (44,016); and Viljandi in the rural south (20,117). The
last population census was held in 2000.
Terrain: Mostly flat, with some undulating terrain in the east
and southeast, average elevation 50 m. Steep limestone banks
and 1,520 islands mark the coastline. Land use--12.05% arable
land, 47.4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 18.55%
other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.
Climate: Temperate, with four seasons. Annual precipitation
averages 50-75 cm.
Government of Estonia
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Constitution: On June 28, 1992 Estonia ratified its
constitution based on its 1938 model, offering legal
continuity to the Republic of Estonia prior to Soviet
Branches: Executive--president (head of state), elected
indirectly every 5 years; prime minister (head of
government). Legislative--Riigikogu (Parliament--101
members, 4-year term). Judicial--Supreme Court.
Administrative regions: 15 counties, 33 towns, and 194
municipalities (local elections data, 2005).
Political parties: Six parties are presently represented in
the parliament: the Estonian Center Party; Estonian Reform
Party; Pro Patria-Res Publica Union; Estonian People's
Union; Estonian Social Democratic Party; and the Estonian
Greens. Other parties include: the Russian Party of Estonia;
Estonian Independence Party; Estonian Christian Democratic
Party; Estonian United Left Party.
Suffrage: Universal at 18 years of age; noncitizen residents
may vote in municipal elections.
Government budget: $9.3 billion.
Defense: 1.8% of GDP.
National holidays: Jan. 1 (New Year's Day), Feb. 24
(Independence Day), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, May 1 (May
Day), Whitsunday, June 23 (Victory Day--anniversary of
Battle of Vonnu in 1919), June 24 (Midsummer Day), Aug. 20
(Day of Restoration of Independence), Dec. 24 (Christmas
Eve); Dec. 25 (Christmas Day), Dec. 26 (Boxing Day).
Government of Estonia web site: http://www.eesti.ee/eng/
Map of Estonia
This Map of Estonia shows the borders of the country, as well as rivers, and
cities including Tallinn the capital of Estonia. (Maps from the U.S. State
Official Name of Estonia
The Official Name of Estonia is the Republic of Estonia.
(Facts from the U.S. State Department)
People of Estonia
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Estonian(s).
Population (2008): 1.340 million.
Annual population growth rate (2008): -0.48%. Birth rate
(2008)--11.96/1,000. Death rate (2008)--12.44/1,000. Net
migration (2008)--3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population. Density--
31/sq. km. Urban dwellers--70%.
Ethnic groups: Estonians 68.6%, Russians 24.9%, Ukrainians
2.1%, Belarusians 1.2%, Finns 0.8%, other 2.4%.
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran; the Estonian Apostolic
Orthodox, subordinated to Constantinople; the Estonian
Orthodox, subordinated to the Moscow Patriarchate; Roman
Catholic; Baptist; and other.
Languages (2000 census): Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian
29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7%.
Education: Years compulsory--9. Attendance--218,600 students
at 550 schools, plus 50,800 university students. Literacy--
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008)--5 deaths/1,000 live
births. Life expectancy (2008)--68.59 yrs. men, 79.23 yrs.
Work force (2008): 695,000.
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